About the Company


Turaevo Machine-building Design Bureau “SOYUZ” was established on the August 1st, 1964, when the Ministry of Aircraft Production founded new design bureau on the basis of Tymansky Development Design Bureau. At first it was known under the name of “mailbox 1864”. New bureau was situated in Turaevo (аsettlement near Moscow), where already were the production capacities.

The Design Bureau’s main task was to develop and create low thrust liquid rocket engines, and then develop the power plants for spacecraft orbital orientation and stabilization, as well as spacecraft orbit adjustment. To the end of 1950s Soviet space industry came close to the creation of Earth guided artificial satellites with the proposal to create low thrust liquid rocket engines based on dual-component fuel that increased energy supplies on the spacecraft in 4-5 times. Moreover, liquid rocket engines were required for cruise missiles, which were the part of military aviation ammunition. To solve this problem, the team made up of experienced and young talented scientists was formed in the Tymansky Development Design Bureau.

Talented designer Vladimir Georgiyevich Stepanov was the first designer general and director of Turaevo Machine-building Design Bureau “SOYUZ”, who created an organization that included Design Bureau, production and test facilities, as well as developed the creation process of new products that have no counterparts in the world. The proving ground Faustovo was equipped with test facility for conducting tests on liquid rocket engines and power plants. Therefore, Vladimir Stepanov managed to create a complete production cycle (design, production and experimental methods) of low thrust liquid rocket engines and propulsion systems in one enterprise.

In a very short time the first liquid rocket engines with the thrust from 0,6 kgf and 10 kgf as well as liquid rocket engines were created for Air Force. P201-300 engine was developed for Kh-22 cruise missile, P209-300 for target-missile (Raduga State Machine-Building Design Bureau).

The “SOYUZ” space program began with the development of power plant for space vehicle called “Satellite fighter” (Russian, Истребитель спутников).  The number of new design solutions was used during the development, such as:

- Significantly increased the efficiency of orientation, stabilization and adjustment systems of space vehicle due to the creation of low thrust liquid rocket engines;

- The reliable engine fuel supply in zero-gravity state is provided with the unique spherical fuel tanks with metal expulsion diaphragms;

- Minimal center-of-weight shift of spacecraft is provided while running out of fuel.

Later on TMDB “SOYUZ” enlarged the number of propulsion systems produced. Propulsion system 11Д79 was firstly manufactured in 1967 and is now used for space aircraft launching in zero-gravity environment from intermediate orbit to the Solar system planets. Propulsion systems ДУ100, 101, 98, 113 are intended for different modules of lunar expeditions.

Staff enlargement was followed by gaining in experience in space engine technology. The active work on the development of liquid-propellant engine of low thrust continued after principal changes had been introduced. The engines of 100 kgf were successfully used in orientation and stabilization of unmanned space aircraft launched in September 1970. Luna-16 mission was to lend on the Moon and return a sample of lunar soil to Earth. The low-thrust liquid-propellant engines, designed and manufactured by TMDB “SOYUZ”, provided soft lunar landing of “Lunochod” space aircraft (Russian “Луноход» Moonwalker). These engines provided the orientation and stabilization of unmanned orbital glided (“Bor”), the prototype of aerospace plane, during its entry into higher atmosphere and initial phase of Earth re-entry.

The engines of 40kgf, 20 kgf, 25 kgf thrust were the part of stabilization, orientation and correction systems for orbital manned station “Almaz” (Russian “Алмаз” Diamond), piloted by P.R. Popovich-Ya. A.Artuychin and B.V. Volynov-V.M. Zhelobov.

In 1970s along with space technologies Turaevo Machine-building Design Bureau “SOYUZ” has mastered another technological area – ramjets. These engines implemented the new concept of solid-fuel rocket engines combined with autonomic casing within ramjet combustion chamber. After the rocket engine finishes its work, its casing is ejected from combustion chamber by ram air.

3Д81 engine, mounted on P-270 Moskit ship-to-ship cruise missile, was the first engine of such kind. Its further modernization allowed the creation of 3Д83 engine with variable dual-expander nozzle.

Conception of putting solid-rocket booster into ramjet combustor found its further development during the design of ramjets not only in TMDB “SOYUZ”, but also in other enterprises.

At the same time TMDB “SOYUZ” designed adjustable afterburners for Mikoyan-25 and then Mikoyan-29.

The work to improve characteristics of low thrust liquid-propellant engines was followed by the creation of different liquid-propellant engines from 40 kgf and 40 g.wt. The last of those created, 11Д444, still meet no world analogues. It is the leader among liquid-propellant engines not only in terms of minimal thrust, but also in continuous fire turn duration in space (100 hours). This engine, which is the part of propulsion system ДУ11Д78, was designed by TMDB “SOYUZ” in 1978 and used to inject stationary communication satellites into orbit.

1979 – TMDB “SOYUZ” in collaboration with P.I. Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) was working on axisymmetric dual-mode hydrogen-fueled ramjet for advanced flight hydrogen-fueled vehicles developed under the programme “Holod” (Russian Холод).

In 1980s “SOYUZ” completed work on another ramjet engine – 31ДПfor anti-ship Kh-31A and anti-radar KH-31P cruise missiles.

The unique ramjet used in “Koala” (Russian ГЭЛА) 4,5-Mach hypersonic experimental flying laboratory was successfully tested in October, 1988.

1991 – TMDB “SOYUZ” entered on a large-scale project to design high-speed ramjets for manned flight vehicle under the “ОРЕЛ-2-1” programme of Russian Federal Space Agency (Russian Роскосмос).

Numerous facility testes allowed to perform assembly adjustment of Mach 3,5…7 inlets, combustion chambers and nozzles, to study fuel injection and injector configurations, to set optimal geometry, to determine combustion efficiency based on injection type, flow duct geometry and combustor exit conditions, to identify dependence of ignition delay and autoignition range on input temperature and Mach number.

Political situation in Russia during 1991 and 2001 triggered not only economy decline, but defense industry recession as well. State orders were reduced dramatically, what led to shutdown of scientific studies funding. Despite of difficult economic situation, “SOYUZ” proceeded with investigations on military and space engines development.

By Russian Federation Presidential Decree №721 dated June 1st, 1992, Turaevo Machine Building Design Bureau “SOYUZ” was reorganized into TMDB “SOYUZ” JSC (certificate №05-445). On the 13th of March, 2002, TMDB “SOYUZ” JSC became a member of Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC.

Today Turaevo Machine-Building Design Bureau “SOYUZ” PJSC is one of the major Russian engines developer, working for space and military industrial sector. The enterprise’s structure enables to run a complete cycle of creation of engines and propulsion systems for flight vehicles. This is a complex, consisting of design and technological bureaus, prototype and small scale productions, experimental base, involving the laboratory of strength dynamic and static tests, firing test facilities for low-thrust liquid-propellant engines and ramjets. Scientific-and-technological design and manufacturing potential makes it possible not only to constantly improve previously designed engines, but to conduct studies on high-speed ramjets as well.